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One World Trade Center NYC
Formerly Known As the
"Freedom Tower"

File:1 WTC rendering.jpg
Artist rendering of One World Trade Center Freedom Tower released by The Durst Organization on May 10th, 2012


One World Trade Center
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

One World Trade Center (1 World Trade Center, 1 WTC, formerly known as Freedom Tower) is the primary building of the new World Trade Center complex in New York City's Lower Manhattan. The 104-story supertall skyscraper stands on the northwest corner of the 16 acres (6.5 ha) World Trade Center site, occupying the location of what used to be the original 6 World Trade Center. The building is bordered to the west by West Street, to the north by Vesey Street, to the south by Fulton Street, and to the east by Washington Street. Construction on below-ground utility relocations, footings, and foundations for the building began on April 27, 2006. The tower's steel structure topped out on August 30, 2012.


On May 10, 2013, the final component of the antenna was installed atop the skyscraper, making One World Trade Center the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere and the third-tallest building in the world by pinnacle height, with its antenna reaching a symbolic 1,776 feet (541 m) in reference to the year of the United States Declaration of Independence. It has been the tallest building in New York City since April 30, 2012, when its height surpassed the Empire State Building. On March 30, 2009, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey confirmed that the building will be known by its legal name, One World Trade Center, rather than the colloquial name, Freedom Tower. The new World Trade Center complex will also feature three other high-rise office buildings, located along Greenwich Street, and the National September 11 Memorial & Museum, located just south of One World Trade Center, where the Twin Towers once stood. The construction is part of an effort to memorialize and rebuild following the destruction of the original World Trade Center complex during the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.

One World Trade Center
One WTC construction 16 June 2013.JPG
Appearance as of June 16, 2013.
Alternative names
  • 1 WTC
  • "Freedom Tower" (pre-2009)
General information
Status Topped out, full tower structure completed. Interior furnishing and exterior under construction. Antenna completed
Type Office, observation, communication
Architectural style Contemporary modern
Location New York City, NY, U.S.
Coordinates 4042′46.8″N 740′48.6″W
Construction started April 27, 2006

Early 2014

Cost $3.9 billion (May 2013 estimate)
Architectural 1,776 ft (541.3 m)
Tip 1,792 ft (546.2 m)
Roof 1,368 ft (417.0 m)
Top floor 1,268 ft (386.5 m)
Observatory 1,254 ft (382.2 m)
Technical details
Floor count 104 (+5 basement floors)
Floor area 3,501,274 sq ft (325,279 m2)
Lifts/elevators 73
Design and construction
Architect David Childs (Skidmore, Owings & Merrill)
Developer Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
Structural engineer WSP Cantor Seinuk
Main contractor Tishman Construction


Following the destruction of the original World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, there was much debate regarding the future of the World Trade Center site. Proposals began almost immediately, and by 2003, the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation organized a competition to determine how to use the site. Public rejection of the first round of designs, the "Preliminary Design Concepts," led to a second, more open competition in December 2002, in which a design by Daniel Libeskind was selected. This went through many revisions, largely because of disagreements with developer Larry Silverstein, who held the lease to the World Trade Center site on September 11, 2001.

Criticism was leveled at the limited number of floors that were designated for office space and other amenities in an early plan. Only 82 floors would have been habitable, and the overall office space of the entire rebuilt World Trade Center would have been reduced by more than 3,000,000 square feet (280,000 m2) in comparison with the original complex. The floor limit was imposed by Silverstein, who expressed concern that higher floors would be a liability in the event of a future terrorist attack or other incident. Much of the building's height would have consisted of a large, open-air steel lattice structure above the roof of the tower, containing wind turbines and "sky gardens". In a subsequent design, the highest space that could be occupied became comparable to the original World Trade Center, and the open-air lattice was removed from the plans. In 2002, former New York Governor George Pataki faced accusations of cronyism for supposedly using his influence to get the winning architect's bid picked as a personal favor for his friend and campaign contributor, Ron Lauder.

A final design for the "Freedom Tower" was formally unveiled on June 28, 2005. To satisfy security issues raised by the New York City Police Department, a 187-foot (57 m) concrete base was added in April of that year. The design originally included plans to clad the base in glass prisms to address criticism that it looked uninviting and resembled a "concrete bunker". However, this later proved unworkable, as preliminary testing revealed that the prismatic glass easily shattered into large and dangerous shards. As a result, it was replaced by a simpler facade consisting of stainless steel panels and blast-resistant glass.

Contrasting with Libeskind's original plan, the tower's final design tapers octagonally as it rises. Its designers stated that the tower would be a "monolithic glass structure reflecting the sky and topped by a sculpted antenna." Larry Silverstein commented in 2006 on a planned completion date: "By 2012 we should have a completely rebuilt World Trade Center, more magnificent, more spectacular than it ever was."

On April 26, 2006, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey approved a conceptual framework that enabled foundation construction to begin, and a formal agreement was drafted on the following day, the 75th anniversary of the 1931 opening of the Empire State Building. The tower's construction began in May with a formal ceremony that took place when the first construction team arrived. The building's topping out occurred on August 31, 2012, and was completed on May 2, 2013.

In 2009, the Port Authority changed the official title of the building from "Freedom Tower" to "One World Trade Center," stating that this name was the "easiest for people to identify with." In May 2011, detailed floor plans of the tower were displayed on New York City's Department of Finance website, resulting in an uproar from the media and citizens of the surrounding area, who warned that the plans could potentially be used for a future terrorist attack. In April 2012, with the tower's structure nearing completion, the owners of 1 WTC began a public marketing campaign for the building, seeking to draw in visitors and additional tenants. The spire of the building was completed on May 10, 2013, and work is commencing on the permanent base for the spire as well as the interior of the structure.

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The future World Trade Center complex, unveiled on September 7, 2006, showing the Freedom Tower with its planned neighboring buildings (200 Greenwich Street, 175 Greenwich Street and 150 Greenwich Street




magine the State of New York building the "Osama bin Laden State Park" in the footprints of the World Trade Center?

Did you know that before the September 11th, 2001 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center in New York City, the Pentagon in Washington D.C. and the heroically foiled 3rd target,  in Columbus, New Mexico on March 9th, 1916 was the previous date foreign terrorists crossed our borders and invaded the continental United States killing innocent civilians and burning down nearly half the town? It's true, and truth being stranger than fiction, the historical March 9th 1916 attack took place on the exact spot which is now the crossroads of New Mexico State Highways 9 and 11.


In Columbus, New Mexico on March 9, 1916 Camp Furlong was the headquarters of the 13th U.S. Cavalry under command of Colonel H. J. Slocum. The 13th Cavalry was stretched along the border on outpost duty from Noria to Hermanas on the El Paso and Southwestern Railroad. At least three troops were present during the raid on Columbus, New Mexico by Pancho Villa and his "Villistas". The hero of the day was Lt. Lucas of the machine gun troop, who while barefoot, set up machine guns in the main area of the town and directed heavy fire against the raiders. His actions inflicted numerous casualties on Villa's Forces and caused them to retreat back into Mexico.

Almost overnight the camp became a large military installation for protection from other raids and in preparation for a punitive expedition into Mexico to be led by General John J. "Blackjack" Pershing.

The 1916 Punitive Expedition made Columbus, New Mexico one of the most significant military historical sites in America. Among the long list of historical happenings are:

  • The Last Ride of the Cavalry in military use.
  • The birth place of the U.S. Air force with the 1st Aero Squadron being moved to Columbus and becoming the first Air Force contingency to be used in a foreign campaign.
  • The first military use of Tanks under the command of young Lieut. George S. Patton

Despite the Village of Columbus' enormous historical value and its registry as a National Historical site, Columbus has been all but forgotten in U.S. History, its historical buildings and sites are in disrepair, and the village as a whole is treated like a "Red headed stepdaughter" by the State & U.S. Government.

You wont find a "Freedom Tower" in Columbus, what you will find is the "Pancho Villa State Park". Columbus actually has a State Park named after the terrorist that attacked the town.

Can you imagine the State of New York building the "Osama bin Laden State Park" in the footprints of the World Trade Center?

To make matters worse, nearly 100 years later, on what locals call "Raid II", Columbus was the spear point of Attorney General Eric H. Holder's "Fast and Furious" debacle. On March 10th, 2011 (the day after the historical anniversary of the March 9th, 1916 Villa invasion ) the small village was the location of a DEA/ATF raid which netted the village Mayor, Police Chief, a Village Trustee, and 8 other residents accused of running guns into Mexico.

We soon learned the Feds were "watching" this family cartel and associates operate out the village's civic center and police station for at least one and a half years. They watched them buying and selling guns to Mexican cartels, they watched them smuggling drugs, they watched them drain the Village assets for their nefarious purposes, and they watched as the innocent citizenry were left as sitting ducks to imminent danger!

While New York City deserves its rightful place in the history of terrorism brought to American soil, and it deserves the Freedom Tower and all the State and Federal monies to rebuild, and it deserves all the garnered new American Patriotism, there is a small village in New Mexico that also deserves the outrage and response to rebuild and protect its borders and historical significance.

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